SSUSH22e

Describe the causes and consequences of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights act of 1965.

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was first proposed by Kennedy and then signed into law by Lyndon B. Johnson. The act was first opposed with much criticism from members of the senate and house that represented the southern states. After finally being signed into law, the Civil Rights Act banned discrimination in public places and employment discrimination fro origin, race, religion, or sex. In Johnson’s first State of the Union address he said that the session he was in would do more for Civil Rights than has been done in the last one-hundred sessions combined. After this the 24th Amendment was passed. This Amendment said that United States elections should never be able to limit certain people to vote through failure to pay poll tax or any other tax.  the second section of the Amendment gives congress the power to enforce the Amendment in order to allow more people to vote. Now that minorities had the aid of the government in being able to vote despite high poll taxes that states would try to individually give minorities, more people were able to vote. After this, to further advance the abilities for minorities to vote the Voting Rights Act of 1965 was passed. This act was also signed into law by Lyndon B. Johnson. It was written to get passed the legal barriers that were imposed by state and local governments in order to prevent African Americans from voting. This new law made the literacy tests, false application status for voting, and other methods of preventing African Americans from voting illegal, thus allowing more African Americans to vote or challenge unfair polls.

 

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Reflection

The ability to vote was given to African Americans shortly after the abolition of slavery. With this being said, many African American families have never even voted due to Jim Crow laws, poll taxes, and other things that were put in place to not allow African Americans to exercise their right to vote. Under the end of Kennedy’s presidency and during Johnson’s presidency huge leaps were made in Civil Rights that allowed minorities to finally have a voice in their government. Without these acts I am not sure that African Americans and other minorities would ever be able to gain equal rights, because they need voting and a say in government to get equal rights and I do not think that would have occurred without the push by the federal government.

Resources:

http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/civil-rights-act

https://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/amendmentxxiv

http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/voting-rights-act

 

SSUSH22d

Describe the significance of Martin Luther King Junior’s Letter from Birmingham Jail and his I have a Dream speech.

MLK’s Letter from Birmingham Jail was written April 16, 1963. The purpose of this was to defend his strategy of non-violent protest to racism in order to achieve change. One of MLK’s main mentors, someone that he followed their beliefs, was Gandhi whom believed in non-violent protest and whom it worked for which he used to back up his opinion that non-violent protest was the best way to achieve change. He wrote this speech to all people working to achieve change in order to tell them not to lose hope on his method of non-violence and that it would prevail. After this letter, Martin Luther King Jr. gave one of the most famous speeches of all time, his “I have a dream” speech during the March on Washington that was a non-violent protest that he organized. The objective of the March on Washington was to achieve mass support for the civil rights movement, and it was seen to work as blacks and other minorities soon were able to achieve higher levels of equality, and it is one of the best remembered organized events of all time. His speech specifically, was to the American people and it had a message of equality and how beautiful the world would look with equality. Malcolm X unlike MLK encouraged action and said action needed to be taken to get our rights back. Many blacks could see his vision more clearly because his seemed more immigrant and easier to accomplish. Like Malcolm X but even more extreme the Black Panther society believed in black supremacy and that the only way to get rights back was to use violence.

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Reflection

Motivational leaders like Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X were the backbone behind the civil rights movement and provided martyrs for the movement. I believe that without their contributions it would be impossible for the United States to accept racial equality. They preached non-violence, and action, two methods that can be looked at as different approaches to equal rights. No matter the approach someone took the ability for people to get behind a person and their ideals on Civil Rights was huge as it allowed people to start organizing and discussing ideas talked about by their idols in the movement. The public protests organized by Martin Luther King Junior, especially the March on Washington, were televised and helped to show every American the important of the Civil Rights Movement, allowing it to spread better.

Resources:

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/king-speaks-to-march-on-washington

http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/martin-luther-kings-speech-dream-full-text/story?id=14358231

http://malcolmx.com/biography/

https://www.britannica.com/topic/Black-Panther-Party

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“A right delayed is a right denied”- MLK

SSUSH22c

Explain Brown V. Board of Education and efforts to resist the decision.

Brown V. The Board of Education sought to desegregate school systems around the country. On May 17, 1954 the ruling for the case was out, which by unanimous decision overturned the Plessy V. Ferguson case that argued for separate but equal institutions. It declared separate but equal as unequal and helped to put an end to state sponsored segregation. As a result of the case the federal government could no longer back the segregation of schools, transportation or anything else. This is seen to be a huge point for the civil rights movement as the federal government was now on the side of the movement. Earl Warren was the chief justice of the Supreme Court at the time. The legal ground the decision sat on was that it was a violation of the fourteenth amendment to have schools segregated. The success of the little rock nine and other African American students can testify to the importance of ending segregation in schools. Earnest Green accompanied by eight other black students were admitted to little rock central high-school an account of grades, and Earnest became the first black person to graduate from little rock high-school This can be seen to have been met with some force though, such as the initial blockading of the University of Alabama from black enrollment by Governor Wallace. Eventual, since segregation was declared unconstitutional troops from the national guard forced the University of Alabama to allow black students, showing that no school was immune from federal law.

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Reflection

The historic decision to overturn Plessy V. Ferguson was a turning point for the Civil Rights Movement. In my opinion the movement wouldn’t have been able to progress possibly at all but certainly without the speed it did if it did not end up receiving backing from the federal government. Without this backing the ground gained by the movement couldn’t have been held up and it would have been at a constant stalemate, with morals facing governmental action. The newly gained governmental support however allowed for blacks and other racial minorities to receive a high quality education like whites did at the time and not only promoted economic growth in the US through more intelligence in the workforce but also helped to educate the entire US population and allow blacks fighting for their rights along with other minorities to have more knowledge to help them fight their battle for racial equality.

Resources:

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/supremecourt/rights/landmark_brown.html

http://www.uscourts.gov/educational-resources/educational-activities/history-brown-v-board-education-re-enactment

http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/brown-v-board-of-education-of-topeka

SSUSH22b

ID Jackie Robinson and the integration of baseball.

Jackie Robinson in 1947 became the first African American in the MLB, being brought on by the Brooklyn Dodgers. The league including Robinson’s own teammates were originally against an African American being allowed into the MLB. Jackie Robinson quickly became one of the leagues best players however, and quickly earned the respect of anyone involved in the sport of baseball especially since he responded in a non-violent and aggressive way to criticism.  After 1947 more African Americans began to play baseball and the percent of African Americans in the MLB greatly increased.

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Reflection

Jackie Robinson’s integration into the MLB was a huge step in the Civil Rights Movement. It officially let Americans know that race has nothing to do with athleticism or ability to compete or be with white people. Without Robinson’s integration I can not be certain as to how quickly African Americans would be able to compete as competitive sports. The MLB also gave Robinson a platform from which he could spread the Civil Rights Movement’s ideas, getting more and more people involved and aiding to evolve social norms, making me believe that Jackie Robinson was essential to the Civil Rights Movement.

Resources:

http://baseballhall.org/hof/robinson-jackie

http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/jackie-robinson

SSUSH22a

Explain the importance of President Truman’s order to Integrate the US military and the federal government.

Executive order 9981 put an end to racial segregation and unfair treatment of racially diverse troops in the United States military. This order greatly impacted the military and federal government by changing the way units could be operated and the way people have worked in the government for years. This executive order was important because African Americans represented ten percent of the United States workforce and during the cold war every one in the United States needed to work their hardest so that the United States could stay superior to the Soviets. This act not only officially ended racial segregation in the military but also gave backing for the entire civil rights movement, because if a man of a different background could risk his life with you why couldn’t he eat with you, sit with you, or put his kids in the same school as yours?

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Reflection

While looking up the subject of executive order 9981 and Truman’s desegregation of the military it hit me that the primary reason to desegregate the military was to get more manpower for the cold war, not for racial justice which bothered and surprised me. This executive order also changed the face of our military forever. With the desegregating of the military it allowed the civil rights movement to advance with one order since it promoted equality, allowed the military to better represent the American population, and allow a stronger bond to be formed between different Americans.

Resources:

https://www.britannica.com/topic/Executive-Order-9981

https://armyhistory.org/executive-order-9981-integration-of-the-armed-forces/