SSUSH24f

Describe the rise of conservative movement as seen in the presidential candidacy of Barry Goldwater (1964) and the election of Richard M. Nixon

Nixon utilized the same strategy that Barry Goldwater attempted to use but could not institute correctly due to his racist background. Nixon used the Southern Strategy to appeal to the white vote by not going for civil rights, but still appealing to other voters by not publicly saying anything against civil rights. Nixon ended up having an easy win over Hubert Humphrey through this strategy that gave him the big, high electoral vote, southern states while not taking the rest of the states votes away from him. He started the rise of the conservative Republican party, and made the party dominant compared to the crippled democratic party for a number of years. Although a smart strategy, his strategy was very morally wrong and many historians looking back on it view Nixon as a political skunk due to it. Nixon also used his strategy of Vietnamization to appeal to those against the Vietnam war, while still carrying on the not backing down policy conservatives wanted to see.

 

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Reflection

Nixon’s southern strategy can be seen as the main component to his victory in the presidential race. It can be viewed as immoral today, but at the time it worked. It helped him gain the southern vote he needed. It can also be viewed as the rise of the dominant conservative party for a short period in history. Nixon’s election strategy was an intelligent combination of what everyone wanted to hear, which got him elected.

Resources:

http://www.nydailynews.com/opinion/nixon-bigger-crime-southern-strategy-article-1.1891611

https://www.whitehouse.gov/1600/presidents/richardnixon

SSUSH24e

Explain the importance of Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring and the resulting developments; include Earth Day, the Creation of the EPA and modern day environmental policy

Rachel Carson wrote the book “Silent Springs” which put the environmental movement into the mainstream. The book talked about the issues with water pollution and how we are killing our environment with facts and statistics that both shocked and scared the country. It allowed the regular person to understand easily how the environment, and the pollution of it effected them. This book was written in 1962. After the environmental field got notice Earth Day was created which is a day of celebration for our Earth, and awareness of global issues. The book prompted legislative action as well as the creation of Earth day by getting people to start sharing their concern with the government over our environment. The NEPA was created and requires governmental agencies to check the effect their decisions would have on the environment. The EPA is meant to regulate environmental policies having to do with green house gas emissions, recycling, waste, water, and pesticides along with other chemicals. The EPA was made to be an environmental regulatory branch of the government.

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Reflection

The introduction of environmental issues and Earth Day which helps to educate everyone on the Earth was huge, especially with rapidly increasing pollution and population numbers. This field becomes more and more important every year and the mainstreaming of it allowed it to be a large concern for most people and allowed people to become more environmental conscious and friendly.

Resources:

http://www.rachelcarson.org/

https://www.epa.gov/

https://www.epa.gov/nepa

Project:

https://sdk.canva.com/v1/embed.jsCelebrate EARTH DAY by Andrew Cox

https://www.canva.com/design/DACRYXGkuAo/share?role=EDITOR&token=lWOs6z0kfEJZMQb6A1m0yw&utm_content=DACRYXGkuAo&utm_campaign=designshare&utm_medium=link&utm_source=sharebutton

SSUSH24d

Analyze Cesar Chavez and the United Farm Worker’s Movement

Cesar Chavez was a Mexican-American that was a prominent union leader and labor organizer for farmers. He formed the National Farm Workers Association and led a strike against grape growers in California, with the Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee. This committee later merged with the National Farm Workers Association. Cesar Chavez and his United Farm Workers Association were able to enact change through non-violent protest and he worked towards eventually getting better working conditions and pay for farmers around the country. His association thus met their goal after all of his and others hard work to improve working conditions for farmers.

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Reflection

Cesar Chavez and the National Farm Worker Association gave poor farmers a voice in the form of a union. This allowed the people that were being overlooked, our countries agricultural background to get equal representation and to get safe and fair working conditions as well as a fair pay. This movement was important as most farmers wouldn’t have known how to represent themselves and as a result they would never have gotten protection under the government without a union and Cesar Chavez’s help.

Resources:

http://www.history.com/topics/cesar-chavez

https://www.britannica.com/topic/National-Farm-Workers-Association

SSUSH24c

Analyze the anti-Vietnam war movement

The anti-Vietnam war movement brought along a wave of music, and hippie culture. Many campaigned for peace, colleges hosted sit-ins, and students burned their draft cards. The hawks supported the war and wanted the United States to actively fight the communist North Vietnamese. The doves on the other hand campaigned for peace. The anti-war movement caused a period of inactivity in areas other than arts areas, due to the focus being on the war. This movement was fueled by televised footage straight from the war that made it seem destructive and hopeless. The United States did end up pulling out of Vietnam.

 

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Reflection

The anti-war movement during Vietnam revealed some of the evils about our government and gave people a distrust in the government that continues until today. I have to agree with the anti-war movement since other than being an opportunity to flex our military power, the war ended up being pointless, destructive, and arguably a loss for the United States.

Resources:

DeLap

 

SSUSH24b

Describe the National Organization of Women (NOW) and the origins and goals of the modern women’s movement

NOW was important in advancing the rights of women. It was founded by Betty Friedan. This organization looked to advance woman in society. It looked for equal economic opportunities for men and women. It sought to create childcare facilities so that more women could work and it also looked to gain equal woman representation in the government. The main goal of NOW was to end discrimination based on sex so that men could be equal to women. The organization started the Take Back the Night Movement which was focused on bringing attention to sexual and domestic violence toward woman. These marches are now held every year in major cities, and campuses around the United States. Universities held take back the night marches at the start of the movement. NOW also aimed to ensure that domestic violence and other crimes against women were seen as equal to a crime against a man.  The founder of NOW wrote a book called Feminine Mystique which was a cry to woman around the United States, to get out of the stereotypical housewife position and begin working or going for other opportunities tat were previously thought to be only available to men. As an extension of women’s rights the case Roe v. Wade was picked up by the Supreme Court. In the case chief justice Harry Blackmun, along with the majority of the Supreme Court in a 7-2 decision, extended the privacy clause to abortions. This allowed women to have abortions in the first two trimesters of a fetus’s life, giving them more control over their own bodies.

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Reflection

The rise of the second feminist movement was huge. In a time that woman were being degraded daily the Civil Rights Movement along with other political movements showed women that they could organize again and overcome the patriarchal society that was being formed around them. This along with organizations such as NOW and movements such as the Take Back The Night Campaign gave women both equality and protective backing. This period of history is important as women have been critical throughout history and we could not have the society we have today without the rise of the second wave of feminism, that was supported by these movements.

Resources:

https://takebackthenight.org/

http://now.org/

http://women4equality.weebly.com/now.html

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/supremecourt/rights/landmark_roe.html

Project:

https://sdk.canva.com/v1/embed.jsTake Back The Night by Andrew Cox

https://www.canva.com/design/DACRYRJoZf0/share?role=EDITOR&token=ybAxVD_MKrl0r7t3N72Z_w&utm_content=DACRYRJoZf0&utm_campaign=designshare&utm_medium=link&utm_source=sharebutton

SSUSH24a

Compare and contrast the Student Non-violent coordinating Committee (SNCC) and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) tactics; include sit-ins, freedom rides and changing composition

Due to the difficult times and the success of Martin Luther King’s idea of non-violent protest several groups were made, with specific goals that they deemed to accomplish by winning the support of the government. The SNCC was extremely active in the summer of 1964. It was headed by Ella Baker. It looked to recruit young African Americans and became more aggressive with its attempts to enact political justice. This can be seen by the Freedom Summer, a campaign that meant to register as many African Americans as it could to vote ahead of the Voting Rights Act hitting Mississippi. Mississippi previously had laws set up against black voting. Once African Americans were registered to vote they were able to with the support of the federal government. The NAACP or National Association for the Advancement of Color People was also founded around this time. It was founded in 1909 and was originally meant to abolish segregation but later just sought for the general advancement of blacks. It noticeably got the Supreme Court to declare the grandfather clause unconstitutional. Lastly the Southern Christian Leadership Conference was founded by MLK and it sought to teach people how to protest non-violently in order to enact change, a method that worked well for MLK and for Ghandi, his idol. These groups used various methods in order to show their discontent for the way things were currently in the United States. Freedom Rides was one method, in which blacks would ride a previously all white bus or sit at the front of a bus in order to show that desegregation has begun and in order to spread it. They would also utilize sit ins, in which they occupied a public space for an extended period of time in order to show whites and the government that their rights would not be trampled on any further. The government, and other people began to recognize the Civil Rights Movement and with the backing of the Kennedy administration it became possible for African Americans to begin holding position in the government. Many important court cases were able to be brought to the attention of the Supreme Court due to the increase of these political movements. An example of this is University of California v. Bakke in which Lewis F. Powell was the chief justice. This case decided that quotas couldn’t be used in school admissions, even though race was a factor to consider because it could prove unfair to some students.

 

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Reflection

The groups created in order to enact political change during the 1900s were extremely important. They gave a cause a backing, as you can not fight a “war” without an army and the war for equality was no different. These different groups also taught people how to protest effectively making each person count more and more than they might have, have they had no teaching. These groups were important to achieving equal rights as they aided in spreading the movement to more people and places, and making to the move towards equality more public.

Resources:

 

http://www.naacp.org/

http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/sncc

http://nationalsclc.org/

https://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/438/265

SSUSH23d

Describe the social and political turmoil of 1968;include the assassinations of MLK Jr, Robert Kennedy and the events surrounding the DNC.

In 1968 the United States was in political turmoil. MLK was assassinated, and so was Robert Kennedy. On top of that riots were seen across the US not just because of the assassination of arguably the most influential leader throughout the Civil Rights Movement, Martin Luther King Jr., but also because of the democratic national convention, which can be seen as a result of the “collapse” of the democratic party after the assassination of JFK. Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated by James Earl Ray who did not agree that blacks should have the same rights as everybody else. He planned to kill MLK and eventually did it in 1968. After the murder of a beloved Civil Rights leader, riots broke out in Detroit, Chicago, Los Angeles and other places around the country. 350 people were arrested in these riots, 11 people died, and lots of property damage was amassed including the destruction of buildings. White owned buildings and businesses were targeted, and the National Guard would have to come in and interfere. After all of this turmoil, Robert Kennedy was assassinated by Sirhan Sirhan because Kennedy opposed entry into the Vietnam war but was favoring military backing to Israel which he not only viewed as hypocritical but was also angered by since several of his family members were killed by Israelis. This was an issue since Robert Kennedy was trying to run for president for the democratic party, and his death hurt the party even more than it had been hurt by his brothers. The democratic convention was later held in Chicago to determine someone to run for the party. Riots broke out as a result of anger towards the assassination of MLK, Kennedy, and the opposing of the Vietnam war. After the Chicago police tried to stop the rioters, they grew violent. This showed the huge split in the democratic party at the time. They decided to elect Hubert Humphrey to represent them but he lost to Richard Nixon in the primary election.

 

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Reflection

This period of political turmoil really showed what Americans were made of.  Two members of a major political family assassinated, a Civil Rights leader murdered, and a political party in shambles all highlighted this tragic year. The disaster that was the DNC national convention led the party to be reorganized and to come back together beginning after the parties horrible defeat by Nixon in the primary elections. The murder of leaders, also speed up the process of change in what they were trying to accomplish, by showing a dark side to all those that opposed them, aiding the Civil Rights Movement.

Resources:

http://www.history.com/topics/robert-f-kennedy/videos/the-assassination-of-rfk

http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/martin-luther-king-jr-assassination

http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/1968-democratic-convention-931079/

SSUSH23c

Explain Lyndon B. Johnson’s Great Society; include the establishment of Medicare

Lyndon B. Johnson initiated a set of domestic reforms that he called “The Great Society” while he was in office. He wanted to eliminate poverty, injustice based on race, and insure that everyone was looked after with medicare and other things that intended to ensure that seniors were protected especially since they couldn’t work. The Great Society can be seen as one of the largest set of reforms to come to the United States since the New Deal program that was instituted by FDR. It looked to revolutionize our society and make it better than that of yesterday. Medicare was under the Social Security act and was put in as part of the Great Society. It was funded by the taxpayer as all governmental programs are and was made to ensure that the elderly had access to medical services despite a lack of income or money due to age.

 

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Reflection

The set up of the Great Society showed strong federal support for not only racial equality but education and the elderly, reminding the people that were feeling possibly left out at the time that the government was still there for them, and this can be seen in the massive amount of legislation that was passed as part of the Great Society. This set of programs not only furthered the Civil Rights Movement but also aided in getting more people educated. Helpful reforms were also passed, like medicare that are commonly used today by most senior citizens for aid with medical expenses. The Great Society can be seen as one of the most important set of reforms our government has ever put out.

Resources:

http://www.ushistory.org/us/56e.asp

http://www.pbs.org/johngardner/chapters/4c.html

http://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/medicare-made

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/johnson-signs-medicare-into-law

SSUSH23b

Describe the political impact of the assassination of President John F. Kennedy; include the impact on civil rights legislation.

November 22, 1963 John F. Kennedy was shot and killed while in Dallas at around 12:30. The shooters name was Lee Harvey Oswald who was said to have killed the president for psychological reasons. JFK was declared dead at 1:00 in the afternoon and the vice president Lyndon B. Johnson was sworn into the presidency, with a grim look on his face, aboard Air Force One just hours later. Johnson worked to continue the Civil Rights Movement as Kennedy did. Johnson passed the Civil Rights Act, a piece of legislation that Kennedy was working on before his death. This act was monumental in racial equality, showing that Johnson agreed with the civil rights movement. The assassination of JFK actually helped Civil Rights legislation be passed as he was seen as a martyr and no one could stand against his legislation that was passed by Johnson.

 

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Reflection

The assassination of John F. Kennedy was one of the worst tragedies in our nation’s history. This assassination was horrible, but allowed his Civil Rights legislation to be passed easier by his successor as no one wanted to oppose JFK’s wishes after he gave his life while leading our country. This assassination paved the way for change in our country, while adding more security for the president of the United States. It also deeply saddened our country and created a rift in the democratic party.

Resources:

https://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK-in-History/November-22-1963-Death-of-the-President.aspx

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/johnson-signs-civil-rights-act

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/kennedys-and-civil-rights/

 

SSUSH23a

Describe the Warren Court and the expansion of individual rights as seen in the Miranda decision.

Earl Warren was chief justice of the Supreme Court from 1953 until 1969. He sought after the chief justice position after being denied the Republican nomination for the presidency. Warren’s court was known to be very liberal, and the highest point to this point in history for judicial power. Warren presided over some of the most historic cases in United States history and was seen to advance the Civil Rights Movement in his rulings. Some of the historic cases he presided over are:

Brown v. Board of Education

This case primary dealt with the idea of separate but equal. This was done because the Brown family lived a while away from their elementary school that was all black and  had a difficult time getting to their bus stop in the morning. The Brown family lived in Topeka, Kansas where schools were separated by race. The Brown family brought their case to the Supreme Court, saying that the idea of separate but equal was not fair. The court decided that the separate but equal notion violated the fourteenth amendments free protection clause and as a result was unconstitutional.

Gideon v. Wainwright

Earl Gideon was arrested for a crime he did not commit, being theft when he was found near the scene of the crime. As a result he was tried and when he asked the court to appoint him a lawyer they refusing, making him represent himself and causing him to be found guilty. As a result he wrote a letter to the Supreme Court asking that they review the decision that was made and they unanimously ruled in his favor stating that the sixth amendment requires courts to have a lawyer to appoint to the defendant if they do not have the money to get their own.

Reynolds v. Sims

In Alabama legislative districts were still being regulated based on a 1900s census. It was argued that since then the urban population of Alabama had dramatically increased since then the state legislative houses did not represent the population effectively and that the urban populations voices were being stifled. The Supreme Court ruled that this was unconstitutional, using the Fourteenth Amendment of equal protection to back its decision. The Alabama state legislature had to start accurately representing the population of Alabama.

Griswold v. Connecticut

Griswold an executive of planned parenthood was fined 100 dollars for illegally giving out contraceptives in Connecticut. At the time using or giving contraceptives in the state was considered illegal. Griswold appealed to the Supreme Court believing that it was unconstitutional that a state could put a restriction on something such as contraceptives. The Supreme Court ruled in his favor 7 to 2 using the first, third, fifth, ninth, and fourteenth amendments to make a privacy clause that allows legal situations to be ruled based on privacy that should be guaranteed.

Miranda v. Arizona

Miranda argued that his confession needed to be excluded from the trial after not being told of his fifth amendment rights against self-incrimination and his sixth amendment rights that grant him an attorney. After getting the Supreme Court to hear his plea, the court agreed that the police had not properly informed Miranda of his rights. This began the idea of your Miranda rights, and now police are required to tell you them upon being arrested.

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Reflection

The court cases that were decided on during the reign of Chief Justice Warren are monumental in the sense that they permanently changed the way our law was interpreted for the better. The decisions gave people rights that in today’s society are used often. People now get to hear there rights when they are arrested, go to the same school as everyone else, have adequate court representation, have better representation in courts, and more privacy in their lives. Many of these constitutional views would not have been changed without these important court decisions.

Resources:

http://landmarkcases.org/en/landmark/cases

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/supremecourt/rights/landmark_reynolds.html

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/supremecourt/rights/landmark_griswold.html

 

Project:

https://sdk.canva.com/v1/embed.jsSupreme Court Cases by Andrew Cox

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https://www.canva.com/design/DACRSVzqWxo/share?role=EDITOR&token=XEs6vIbCxybH6slXGmHFAQ&utm_content=DACRSVzqWxo&utm_campaign=designshare&utm_medium=link&utm_source=sharebutton